Plant Protein vs Animal derived protein – Going head to head

Plant based protein is the biggest story in today’s protein market. By incorporating plant-based proteins into diets it is possible to decrease or fully eliminate meat consumption. Due to this more and more are adopting vegetarian and vegan lifestyles. However, many people are still focused on consuming “high quality” meat products either for taste preferences, or because they believe meat is nutritionally superior. We want to set out the challenge of answering the underlying question “what is the difference between plant protein versus animal protein?”

Amino Acids in Plant Protein and Animal Protein

Protein is made up of amino acids. A total of 20 amino acids are needed by the human body. Of the required 20 amino acids, 9 are considered “essential,” meaning they must be obtained through the diet. The other 11 amino acids can be synthesized in the body.

Animal proteins tend to deliver all of the amino acids you need in one food. But what is not commonly known is that you don’t have to get all amino acids in one meal to experience the benefits. For years, it was believed that plant proteins were somehow inferior to animal protein. The premise was; plant proteins could only be “incomplete” proteins – meaning they lacked one or several of the the essential amino acids. In order to be “complete,” one would have to diligently plan meals to get a full range of amino acids. This is where the whole “you need to eat rice and beans together for complete protein” idea comes from.  Since this time, science has entirely debunked the myth that you need to consume all amino acids simultaneously to reap the protein rewards. We now know that you can consume various forms of plant foods with different amino acid profiles separately (spaced out throughout the day, across a few days, etc.) and still get adequate use of dietary protein.  Eating a robust, varied diet complete with various plant-proteins, you can get a full range of the amino acids that your body needs, even as a vegan. The Nuzest Clean Lean Protein has a complete panel of amino acids.

Animal Protein, Plant-Protein, and Chronic Disease

The World Health Organization (WHO) currently classifies red meat as a Group 2A carcinogen, meaning that it is probably carcinogenic to humans (meaning they believe red meat might cause cancer) Processed meat is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, meaning, it is cancer-causing to humans based on sufficient human data. Limiting intake of red and processed meat could be beneficial in lowering cancer risks.

Furthermore, epidemiological studies of various dietary habits have shown that vegetarian and vegan diets are usually protective in terms of cancer risk and that fruit and vegetable consumption is linked with lower risk of cancer. Additionally, plant foods usually are full of free-radical quenching antioxidants, which can help protect your body from harmful oxidative reactions and are often rich in fiber. Other large observational studies have connected red meat consumption with cardiovascular disease and processed meat with increased risk of cardiovascular-related deaths, as well as increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

The amount of red and processed meat you consume makes a difference!

You don’t have to go fully vegan in order to benefit from the wide ranging benefits of plant-based foods. Even if you love meat, cutting back on animal proteins from processed and red meat sources may be beneficial against these diseases, especially if you replace meat with nutrient-rich plant foods such as legumes, nuts, beans, whole grains, and fruits and vegetables.

Protein and The Environment: Is Meat Sustainable?

It is accepted that meat is simply less environmentally friendly. Producing just one kilogram of beef (or 2.2 pounds) emits a hefty 26 kilograms of carbon dioxide. Lamb emits even more carbon dioxide: roughly 39 kilograms of CO2 per kilogram of meat. Livestock also emits methane (another greenhouse gas) from burps, farts, and poop.

To complicate things further, even ‘healthier alternatives’ such as grass fed livestock tend to emit even more greenhouse gases compared to factory-farmed livestock due to efficiency in terms of land-use and resources.

Plant proteins typically produce far fewer carbon emissions. For example, a kilogram of lentils emits 0.7. kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2), a strikingly lesser amount than livestock production. Furthermore, they tend to have a much smaller water footprint, making them an overall more sustainable food choice.

Even if you’re a fan of meat, swapping some animal protein for plant-based protein will not only be beneficial for your health, but it will also help shrink the overall carbon footprint you produce. To add more plant-based protein to your diet, check out Nuzest Clean Lean Protein or other products in the Nuzest lineup.

We have a range of amazing Clean Lean Protein Smoothies, Smoothie Bowls and other recipes for you to follow!  Check these out here.

* Original article posted by Nuzest USA https://www.nuzest-usa.com/need-know-plant-protein-vs-animal-protein

5 Ways To Feel Refreshed Everyday

 

    Why is feeling refreshed not always easy? Our daily routine can sometimes make us feel exhausted. We wake up, drink or eat something and readily engage in something that is not really optimal for our health. As a result, we feel there is a lack of energy in our body to complete everyday tasks. And then, we want to know if there is a way to feel refreshed that does not require a lot of effort.

Feeling refreshed is not really difficult to achieve. All you need to do is develop a routine and try these tips:

  1. Switching from Hot to Cold Shower

The experts claim when the body encounters the switches from hot to cold showers, it benefits us a lot. For example, it leads to normal circulation of the blood. The skin is becoming more and more elastic and fresh-looking. Every organ gets enough portion of the oxygen, therefore, it begins to work better. Besides, a cold shower is perfect for those who are in deep depression because it lifts up one’s mood.

  1. Get Physical 

Going to the gym might seem like a boring option. It is important not for forget, the gym is not the only one way of doing sports. You may also try out different kinds of physical activities to feel great such as fitness, swimming, running, or dancing, etc.  Just choose the physical activity you like best and start doing it on the regular basis. Start by setting a time for your sports activity. Remember, that you should always stretch before every physical activity in order to avoid injuries. You may change the kind of sport and try another one if you get bored with it. Anyway, doing sports is such a beneficial thing for your health to try out, even if you have been hating sports since you were at school.

Energy, Feel Good, Refresh, Soulscape

  1. Drink More Water

The human body consists of 70% of pure water. Bear in mind, that it is pure water, not coffee, which you might drink all day long. Forget about soft drinks containing sugar if you want to feel refreshed every day and finally to feel alive. Drinking more water makes the blood in your veins more able to flow so that your mood will be better because mood and blood circulation are connected. Less sugar in your blood is always a good thing, too.

Every day drink 1,5 litres of a pure water. And remember, hunger can be easily confused with thirst. Have a glass of water before eating to avoid this.

  1. Create a Map of your Goals and place them near your bed

Each of us needs the reason to wake up every morning. Try thinking outside of the box focus on how to visually represent your life or activity on a sheet of paper.  Attach it just in front of a place you most often see when you wake up. The effect can be unbelievable. This piece of advice is based on the principle that every one of us has to have some sense in their life of the reason why they are alive. Being reminded of this every morning enables us to begin our day with a certainty about our purpose.

Energy, Feel Good, Refresh, Soulscape

  1. Keep Digital Device Out of the Bedroom

We live in the world of informational technologies; it’s almost impossible to find a person without any kind of digital gadget today. However, despite the fact that things are really helpful, they might be also destroying. It was estimated that if you keep your cell phone close to your chest during a day for a long period of time, sooner or later you might have heart-related issues with your health. Electronics influence our body’s biorhythms.

 

Energy, Feel good, Soulscape

Overall, there are countless ways to refresh ourselves each and every day. Walk a mile, listen to the energizing music!

Article by Helen Rodgers

Photos by Jeanette Lamb @graffitigoose

This article was originally published by our friends at SOULSCAPE.

Turmeric for post-workout recovery

We’ve all felt it – that pain and stiffness that occurs several hours (and even days!) after unaccustomed exercise or overworking a particular muscle group. Known as ‘delayed onset muscle soreness’ (DOMS), we typically experience these pains when eccentric muscle activity is involved and the contracting muscles are forcibly lengthened.1 This mechanical stress triggers an inflammatory response and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in sustained inflammation and oxidative stress which can eventually lead to muscle injury and the dreaded DOMS.2

The medicinal benefits of regular turmeric consumption have been well documented; from improving brain function to lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, preventing and treating Alzheimer’s Disease and even fighting certain types of cancer. What is less commonly known is that Curcumin (the active constituent of Turmeric that gives it its distinctive yellow colour) has also proven to be beneficial in recovery from exercise due to its powerful antioxidant and inflammatory effects.

To test the theory, a trial was carried out to measure the effects of oral curcumin versus placebo on DOMS following unaccustomed heavy eccentric exercise. The study was a double-blind, randomised-controlled crossover trial in which the Curcumin or placebo were taken two days before to three days after eccentric exercise and the results found that only the Curcumin had beneficial effects. These included:

  • moderate to large reductions in single-leg squat and gluteal stretch pain at 24 and 48 hours post exercise,
  • reduced pain on walking down stairs, and
  • improved muscle performance.3

Another recent randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial comparing Curcumin with placebo was designed to assess the muscle damage of healthy male volunteers after performing a 45 minute downhill running race. Results found that 1g of turmeric given twice daily resulted in:

  • reduced MRI evidence of muscle injury in the posterior and medial compartment of both thighs,
  • less pain in the lower legs, and
  • reduced systemic inflammatory response in comparison to placebo.2

The results from these studies suggest that turmeric has the potential to be very beneficial in reducing post-exercise soreness after high intensity training.

Nuzest’s Chai, Turmeric and Maca Clean Lean Protein (CTM-CLP) contains 1g of 100% pure Indian turmeric root and 19g of digestible protein per 25g serve, making it the perfect pre- and post-workout supplement. Because Curcumin alone has a very low bioavailability, CTM-CLP also contains 100mg of black pepper per serve which has been proven to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin in humans by 2000%.4 A clinical study conducted on elite rugby players has shown that the combination of curcumin and piperine (black pepper’s active ingredient) supplementation before and after exercise may help lessen some aspects of muscle damage.5

So if you’re looking to dial up the intensity of your training, or you want to recover and get back into it faster, try adding turmeric to your diet.

References:

1Proske, U., & Morgan, D. L. (2001). Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. The Journal of Physiology, 537(Pt 2), 333–345. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00333.x

2Drobnic, F., Riera, J., Appendino, G., Togni, S., Franceschi, F., & Valle, X. et al. (2014). Reduction of delayed onset muscle soreness by a novel curcumin delivery system (Meriva®): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-31

3Nicol, L., Rowlands, D., Fazakerly, R., & Kellett, J. (2015). Curcumin supplementation likely attenuates delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(8), 1769-1777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3152-6

4Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M., Rajendran, R., & Srinivas, P. (1998). Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. Planta Medica, 64(4), 353-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957450

5Delecroix, B., Abaïdia, A. E., Leduc, C., Dawson, B., & Dupont, G. (2017). Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 16, 147-153.

 

The Benefits of Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) for Energy and Exercise

MCTs

Fats – the endless scrutiny continues. Which ones are bad for us? Which ones are meant to be good for us? Which ones will make us put on weight? Everyone seems to have a different opinion. The good news is there is one type of fat that experts agree we don’t need to be concerned about – one that is not only good for our health but can also improve our energy and the quality of our workouts.

Medium Chain Triglycerides/Triacylglycerols (MCTs) are a unique form of dietary fat that provide numerous health benefits. Their reduced chain length not only means that they carry fewer calories, it also allows for accelerated metabolic conversion. This means that instead of our bodies storing them as fat (like Long Chain Fatty acids (LCTs)), the calories in MCTs are used immediately by our organs and muscles, making it one of the fastest, cleanest sources of fuel for the body.

MCTs have gained popularity with athletes looking to increase energy levels and enhance endurance during high-intensity exercise. 1 A review of the literature has shown that short-term ingestion of foods containing a small amount of MCTs suppresses the increase in blood lactate concentration and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during moderate-intensity exercise; whilst extending the duration of subsequent high-intensity exercise, at levels higher than those achieved by ingestion of LCT-containing foods.2

MCTs have also been found to assist with weight loss because of their lower caloric content than other fats, as well as their ability to enhance metabolism, increase energy expenditure, and promote the production of ketones – all without adversely affecting metabolic risk factors such as cholesterol and blood pressure.1,3,4,5 Scientists have attributed the energy-enhancing properties of MCTs to their rapid formation of ketone bodies thus making them an excellent choice for anyone that has increased energy needs or requires enhanced athletic performance.

Now that we have cleared the air on this group of ‘super’ fats, it’s time to put them to use in your own daily routine. Nuzest’s Coffee, Coconut + MCT Clean Lean Protein contains approximately 600mg of coconut-derived MCTs per 25g serve, making it the perfect pre-workout protein smoothie.

Click here for our Pre-Workout Coffee, Coconut + MCT thick shake recipe to help get the best out of every workout.

 

References:

  1. Dean, W. & English, J. (2013). Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) – Beneficial Effects on Energy, Atherosclerosis and Aging. Retrieved from https://nutritionreview.org/2013/04/medium-chain-triglycerides-mcts/
  2. Nosaka, N., Suzuki, Y., Nagatoishi, A., Kasai, M., Wu, J., & Taguchi, M. (2009). Effect of Ingestion of Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols on Moderate- and High-Intensity Exercise in Recreational Athletes. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 55(2), 120-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.55.120
  3. Mumme, K., & Stonehouse, W. (2015). Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on Weight Loss and Body Composition: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(2), 249-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.10.022
  4. Rego Costa, A. C., & Rosado, E. L., & Soares-Mota, M. (2012). Influence of the dietary intake of medium chain triglycerides on body composition, energy expenditure and satiety; a systematic review. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 27(1), 103-108.
  5. St-Onge, M.-P., Bosarge, A., Goree, L. L. T., & Darnell, B. (2008). Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil Consumption as Part of a Weight Loss Diet Does Not Lead to an Adverse Metabolic Profile When Compared to Olive Oil. Journal of the American College of Nutrition27(5), 547–552.

 

NEW Clean Lean Functional Protein

Premium European Golden Pea protein is combined with functional ingredients from centuries-old Eastern medicine to help you perform at your peak.

Introducing our new Clean Lean Protein Functional Flavours range. Your favourite Pea protein isolate enhanced and flavoured with ingredients that have been used for centuries in Eastern medicine to treat conditions from inflammation to low energy and fertility.

FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

Three unique flavour combinations have been developed using sustainable European Golden Pea protein + functional foods, herbs and spices + natural flavours; all sweetened naturally with an extract from the West African Katemfe fruit (Thaumatin).

Protein is essential for energy, cell repair and immunity and Clean Lean Protein Functional Flavours are a delicious way to nourish your body. All you need to do is choose a flavour to suit your daily requirements.

Chai, Turmeric + Maca

TURMERIC: A powerful anti-inflammatory used for centuries in Indian medicine.

MACA ROOT: Nutrient-dense and claimed to enhance fertility and energy.

Coffee, Coconut + MCTs

COFFEE: This powerful antioxidant promotes and enhances physical performance.

MCTs: Medium Chain Triglycerides are linked to weight loss and better cognitive function, occurring naturally in coconuts.

Vanilla Matcha

MATCHA: This green tea with slow-release caffeine is high in antioxidants and has been used in Eastern medicine for its brain-boosting effects (due to high levels of L-Theanine).

HOW TO USE

Clean Lean Protein Functional Flavours is a ready to make protein smoothie. No need to add anything other than water or your choice of milk (e.g. rice, almond or coconut). You don’t even need a blender, simply shake and go!

WHO IS IT FOR

Clean Lean Protein Functional Flavours is suitable for all ages, lifestyles and common dietary requirements. It’s founded on clean nutrition with nothing artificial – no fillers, added sugar or other nasties.

THE SUSTAINABLE CHOICE

Nuzest operate with the environment in mind. Golden peas provide a sustainable protein source using less water and less land than animal proteins. The isolation process is water-based, the water is then purified and recycled. Any waste goes to animal feed and biofuel.

INDEPENDENTLY TESTED & FREE FROM COMMON ALLERGENS

Ingredients are blended in Australia under strict GMP standards. The finished products are then tested to ensure they are safe and free from Gluten, Dairy and Soy.

5 Meditation apps for people too busy to mediate

Everywhere you look, people these days are stressed out. There is a drive to cope and to survive. People are getting savvier about how chronic stress can lead to ill health. With the rise of stress levels and dwindling attention span, people are increasingly using technology to tap into age old technique of meditation.

Meditation apps are now trending big time. Meditation apps can help you chalk out time in your day to meditate and can teach you how to meditate. They range from meditation for beginners to extensive lessons and subscription tutorials.

Each meditation app has its own unique features. So simply take your headphones, close your eyes and let these apps guide you wherever you are.

1) Sattva:

satttva-phone 393x800

The app has tools that encourage and inspire you to make meditation a daily practice. The app includes a collection of free guided meditation and soothing music. This app not only helps you to keep track of your meditation timings but also helps you to track your state of mind pre and post meditation. Plus, it keeps records of all your meditation and you can unlock titles and achievements as you progress. For a beginner, this can be a good start.

2) AURA:

Aura 394x800The app has a different concept each day; you get a three-minute meditation that’s customized based on how you’re feeling in the present moment. When new users join, they get to answer a few questions to help the app understand their needs and their familiarity with meditation. They have a mood tracker to check how you’re feeling over time, and also they offers daily reminders for completing short breathing exercises. After each session, users can provide feedback that can help Aura become more in tune with their goals.

3) BUDDHIFY:

Buddhify 400x800The app introduces users to techniques of meditation compatible to urban lifestyles. It offers 80 guided meditations ranging in length from approximately 4 to 30 minutes. The 11 hours of guided meditations practices are designed for activities such as commuting, taking a short break at work, at the gym, and going to sleep, etc. There are also multiple voices to choose from until you find your favorite soothing voice. You can also track your progress through stats and graphs.

4) HEADSPACE:

Headspace 396x800Headspace teachs less spiritual and more science-based meditation techniques. They have one free section while access to the rest of the app requires a subscription. The Take10 series is free and comes with 10 daily guided meditations. Andy, the narrator is a Tibetan monk, has a soothing voice and makes it easy to meditate. You can download guided meditations for offline use as well. There is stepwise detail instruction given to users along with animations to guides you every possible way.

5) CALM:

Calm 450x800Calm explains the mindfulness meditation technique with the 7 Days of Calm. This features seven sessions of 10 minutes each. Once you complete seven sessions, you can move on to 21 Days of Calm and the full catalog with a paid subscription. The app offers sessions for situations, such as when you’re traveling, angry, or need to focus. The app keeps account through a calendar that shows you how many times you’ve meditated during the month.

Meditation is a personal practice. While one app may be perfect for one person, it may not work for others. Most of the above apps have a free trial option, so the best way to see what works for you is to try them.

 

This article was originally published by our friends at SOULSCAPE.ASIA.

Review: Best Pea Protein Powder is Nuzest

The following is an excerpt from the full article at superfoodly.com.

Whether you need it for building muscle or as a meal replacement for weight loss, the vast majority of the powders on the market – including those which are plant-based – come with 3 major pitfalls… 

1. Whey and casein causes gas and bloating 

2. Many vegan protein powders are bad, too

3. Stevia is “highly mutagenic” in animals, human effects unknown

Review of Nuzest protein

Unlike Vega and most other brands, Nuzest is unique in that they use golden peas grown in Northern France, which are then processed using chemical-free methods in Belgium.

The result is a pea protein unlike what’s in Vega and similar. This is a powder which for whatever reasons, does not seem to cause GI distress.

It blends amazingly, even with just plain water…

What you see there is how we prefer to eat Clean Lean Protein. Rather than dilute it in lots of water, we use a little and make a delicious protein-packed pudding. Topping it with berries, nuts, and raw cacao nibs gives you the satisfaction of ice cream or yogurt, but with the nutrients an athlete needs for a post-workout treat.

For weight loss, try substituting out your dessert with some of this.

For making a traditional shake, just add more water…

That’s blended with just a spoon in a glass of water. Not using a shaker or blender means there’s less air added to the drink and in turn, it’s another reason why you’re far less likely to experience gas and bloating with Nuzest.

When you use an electric blender to make a protein shake, all of that added air has to escape your body somehow.

A spoon and 20 seconds of stirring gives you this incredibly smooth texture with zero grittiness.

It’s one of the few alkaline protein powders in existence. Its pH is 7.8 is something you won’t find with whey protein or any animal-based source, unless it has something like baking soda added to it…

Read the entire article on superfoodly.com.

 

The Pocket Guide to Seasonal Health

Why seasons really influence our health.

Seasonal changes are a mixed bag of feelings for most. The dreaded rains of spring and the harsh clutches of winter leave most of us pining for the warmth of summer.

The spike in illnesses when the weather turns hardly goes unnoticed. Whilst they’re mostly associated with heading into winter, no season is a breeze. Hay fever hits in the Spring and Summer, then you’re knocked down by the common cold in Autumn, and on top of that are lingering viruses and bacteria that do the rounds in between seasons.

Everyone is at some risk; especially children, the elderly and those already suffering from pre-existing conditions.

 

Why the weather affects your health so dramatically.

Well, the reasons aren’t that clear-cut. Currently, most scientists agree that seasonal illnesses are not directly dependent on temperature exposure, but due to other factors that occur in different seasons. For example, in winter people tend to spend more time indoors and closer to each other than they usually do in summer, providing the perfect breeding ground for pathogens (thename for tiny microorganisms that do us harm).  

Additionally, while cooler/warmer temperatures do not make us ill directly, the extra stress they exert on our bodies (through trying to maintain an optimal temperature range), means there’s more risk of having a weakened defence or contracting a pathogen.

But that’s not the be all and end all on the topic of seasonal health. Genetics and our immune system still play an important part.

Did you know that a large proportion of our genes differ according to the time of the year? A study at the University of Cambridge found that almost a quarter of immunological genes tested (22,822) varied between summer and winter across different ethnographic and geographic regions.1 This experiment and other similar ones demonstrate that our immune system reacts to temperature, day light and other environmental factors that are still unclear.2

External stresses and how our immune system responds are the keys to limiting and preventing seasonal illness. Let’s talk more about what our immune system looks like.

 

The Immune System 101

When it comes to health you’ve probably heard professionals talk about the immune system and you may even have some understanding already about how it functions. Don’t worry if it’s a mystery to you, we’ll give you a brief overview of how our bodies deal with potential threats so you can better understand how to protect yourselves.

Our Immune System

Human beings have 12 body systems and the immune system is one of them. It is responsible for defending the body against external threats (such as allergens, bacteria, toxins, etc.) and internal threats (such as potentially cancerous cells.) There are two main branches of the immune system that work together to provide the best defence possible, the “innate” and the “adaptive” immune responses.

The First Line of Defence – The Innate Response

The innate response is non-specific; meaning that although it is quite effective, it will not discriminate against specific bacteria or parasites. Therefore, it is relatively limited compared to the other response; the adaptive response.

Inflammation is one of the main innate responses. On the outside, you may only see a cut as red, swollen, warm and slightly painful. But on the inside, there is a complex system of cells and molecules at play that work to prevent any outside pathogens from entering your body and causing damage.

Long-term Memory? – The Adaptive Response

As the name suggests, this part of the immune system adapts to whatever harmful matter enters the body and provides long-term defence against threats. It has a range of different cells and abilities that identify specific patterns on the surface of pathogens and builds a large, targeted response against them.

An easy to understand example comes from our experience with chicken pox. Many of us as children will contract the chicken pox virus which leads to 1-3 weeks of itchy blister-like rashes all over the body. During these weeks, the adaptive response begins to identify and mount a large defence against the virus so that if your body interacts with the virus again it can deal with the threat in a matter of days with no external symptoms.

A Closer Look

This is a very brief description of the immune system, which is incredibly complex and works in an intricate manner to deliver the best defence. To do this it requires the right nutrition and lifestyle support to function at its best. [Watch this video to learn more about the innate and adaptive immune responses.]

There’s much we can do to help support our immune system on a day-to-day basis so that when microbes come our way, we’re prepared.


References

  1. Dopico XC, Evangelou M, Ferreira RC, Guo H, Pekalski ML, Smyth DJ, Cooper N, Burren OS, Fulford AJ, Hennig BJ, Prentice AM. Widespread seasonal gene expression reveals annual differences in human immunity and physiology. Nature communications. 2015 May 12;6.
  2. Lu W, Meng QJ, Tyler NJ, Stokkan KA, Loudon AS. A circadian clock is not required in an arctic mammal. Current Biology. 2010 Mar 23;20(6):533-7.

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